Each Chapter concludes with a Conclusion & Discussion section, a Chapter Summary, a review of Key Terms, Review Questions, Critical Thinking questions and Suggestions for Further Reading.

PART I: The History of the Idea of Race

1: The Origin of the Idea of Race
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  • Defining Race and Racism
  • Race: The Evolution of an Ideology
  • The Rise of Science and the Question of Human Difference
  • The Indian Removal Act: The Continuation of Manifest Destiny
  • Freedom and Slavery in the United States

2: Race and Citizenship from the 1840s to the 1920s
  • The Continuation of Scientific Racism
  • Exclusionary Immigration Policies
  • How the Irish, Italians, and Jews Became White
  • Native Americans and African Americans: The Long, Troubled Road to Citizenship

PART II: Racial Ideologies

3: Racial Ideologies from the 1920s to the Present
  • The 1920s to 1965: Egregious Acts in the Era of Overt Racism
  • The Civil Rights Movement and the Commitment to Change
  • Old versus New Racism: The Evolution of an Ideology
  • The Maintenance of Racial Hierarchy: Color-Blind Racism
  • The New Politics of Race: Racism in the Age of Obama

4: The Spread of Ideology: “Controlling Images” and Racism in the Media
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  • Portrayals of People of Color on Television and in Other Media
  • New Media Representations
  • How Do Media Images Work to Justify Racial Inequality?
  • How are Images Raced, Classed, and Gendered?

5: Skin-Tone Stratification and Colorism
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  • The History of Colorism
  • The Global Color Hierarchy
  • Skin Color, Gender, and Beauty

6: White Privilege and the Changing U.S. Racial Hierarchy
  • White Privilege
  • Whiteness, Class, Gender, and Sexuality
  • Whiteness and Racial Categories in 21st-Century America
  • Changes in Racial and Ethnic Classifications
  • Revisiting the Definition of Race and Ethnicity

PART III: Policy and Institutions

7: Understanding Racial Inequality Today: Sociological Theories of Racism
  • Racial Discrimination, Prejudice, and Institutional Racism
  • Systemic and Structural Racism
  • Racial Formation: Its Contributions and Its Critics
  • White Supremacy and Settler Colonialism
  • Intersectional Theories of Race and Racism
  • Conclusion and Discussion

8: Educational Inequality
  • The History of Educational Inequality
  • Educational Inequality Today
  • The Achievement Gap: Sociological Explanations

9: Income and Labor Market Inequality
  • Income Inequality by Race, Ethnicity, and Gender
  • Dimensions of Racial Disparities in the Labor Market
  • Sociological Explanations for Income and Labor Market Inequality
  • Affirmative Action
  • Entrepreneurship and Self-Employment

10: Inequality in Housing and Wealth
  • Land Ownership after Slavery
  • Residential Segregation
  • Wealth Inequality
  • Explaining the Wealth Gap in the Twenty-First Century

11: Racism and the Criminal Justice System
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  • Mass Incarceration in the United States
  • Institutional Racism in the Criminal Justice System
  • The Economics of Mass Incarceration
  • Beyond Incarceration: Collateral Consequences

12: Health Inequality and Environmental Justice
  • The History of Health Disparities in the United States
  • Explaining Health Disparities by Race and Ethnicity Today
  • Environmental Racism
  • Movements for Environmental Justice

13: Racism, Nativism, and Immigration Policy
  • The Racialized History of U.S. Immigration Policy
  • Nativism between 1924 and 1964: Mass Deportation of Mexicans and The McCarran Internal Security Act
  • The 1965 Immigration and Nationality Act and the Changing Face of Immigration
  • Illegal Immigration and Policy Response
  • Nativism in the Twenty-First Century

PART IV: Contesting and Comparing Racial Injustices

14: Racial Justice in the United States Today
  • Perspectives on Racial Justice
  • Moving Beyond Race
  • Struggles for Racial Justice
  • Racial Justice and Empathy

15: Thinking Globally: Race and Racisms in France, South Africa, and Brazil
  • How Do Other Countries Differ from the United States in Racial Dynamics?
  • Race and Racism in France
  • Race and Racism in South Africa
  • Race and Racism in Brazil