PART I: The Solid Earth

Chapter 1: Foundations of Modern Geology
  • 1.1 Geology and the Scientific Method
  • 1.2 The Birth of Geology
  • 1.3 Geologic Time
  • 1.4 Earth Materials: Minerals, Rocks and Fossils
  • 1.5 The Rock Cycle
  • 1.6 Origin of Earth and the Solar System
  • 1.7 Earth’s Internal Heat
  • 1.8 Earth as a System
  • 1.9 What Does a Geologist Do?
  • Summary
  • Key Terms
  • Key Concepts
  • Study Questions
  • Science Refresher: Some Basic Concepts in Chemistry and Physics
  • In Depth: Origin of the Universe – The Big Bang Theory
  • Living on Earth: Earth’s Seasons – A 4.5-Billion-Year-Old Legacy?
  • Science Refresher: The Flow of Heat

Chapter 2: Plate Tectonics

Chapter 3: Minerals
  • 3.1 Elements: Building Blocks of Minerals
  • 3.2 Minerals: Orderly Expressions of Matter
  • 3.3 Physical Properties of Minerals
  • 3.4 Silicate Rock-Forming Minerals
  • 3.5 Nonsilicate Rock-Forming Minerals
  • 3.6 Minerals and Rocks
  • 3.7 Minerals and People
  • 3.8 Minerals and Plate Tectonics
  • Key Terms
  • Key Concepts
  • Study Questions
  • Living on Earth: Origin of the Chemical Elements
  • Science Refresher: Some Basic Definitions in Science
  • Science Refresher: Solids, Liquids, and Gases

Chapter 4: Origin and Evolution of Igneous Rocks
  • 4.1. Igneous Rocks and the Rock Cycle
  • 4.2. Magma Formation and Transport
  • 4.3 Textures of Igneous Rocks
  • 4.4 Classifying Igneous Rocks
  • 4.5 Evolution of Igneous Rocks
  • 4.6 Volcanic Eruptions
  • 4.7 Igneous Rocks and Plate Tectonics
  • Key Terms
  • Key Concepts
  • Study Questions
  • Science Refresher: Heat, Temperature, and Magma
  • Living on Earth: Volcanoes and the Air We Breathe
  • In Depth: Can Explosive Eruptions be Predicted?

Chapter 5: Weathering and Soils
  • 5.1 Weathering
  • 5.2 Mechanical Weathering
  • 5.3 Chemical Weathering
  • 5.4 Soil
  • 5.5 Weathering, Soils, and Plate Tectonics
  • Key Terms
  • Key Concepts
  • Study Questions
  • Science Refresher: What is an Acid?
  • In Depth: The Role of Oxidation in Earth’s History
  • Living on Earth: The Food Chain

Chapter 6: Sedimentation and Sedimentary Rocks
  • 6.1 From Sediment to Sedimentary Rocks
  • 6.2 Types of Sedimentary Rocks
  • 6.3 Classifying Sedimentary Rocks
  • 6.4 Interpreting Sedimentary Rocks
  • 6.5 Depositional Environments and Sedimentary Facies
  • 6.6 Sediments, Sedimentary Rocks and Plate Tectonics
  • Key Terms
  • Key Concepts
  • Study Questions
  • Living on Earth: Salt of the Earth
  • Living on Earth: King Coal
  • Science Refresher: Settling Velocities

Chapter 7: Metamorphism and Metamorphic Rocks
  • 7.1 Metamorphic Rocks and the Rock Cycle
  • 7.2 Factors that Control Metamorphism
  • 7.3 Types of Metamorphism
  • 7.4 Metamorphic Textures
  • 7.5 Classifying Metamorphic Rocks
  • 7.6 Metamorphic Zones and Facies
  • 7.7 Metamorphism and Plate Tectonics
  • Key Terms
  • Key Concepts
  • Study Questions
  • Science Refresher: Pressure Units
  • In Depth: Shock Metamorphism
  • In Depth: Metamorphism and the Rock Cycle

PART II: Evolution of the Solid Earth

Chapter 8: Geologic Time
  • 8.1 Measuring Geologic Time: Relative and Absolute Ages
  • 8.2 A Short History of Geologic Time
  • 8.3 Relative Dating: Determining Chronological Order
  • 8.4 Correlating Rock Strata
  • 8.5 Relative Dating and the Geologic Time Scale
  • 8.6 Absolute Dating: Finding a Geologic Clock
  • 8.7 Absolute Dating and the Geologic Time Scale
  • 8.8 A Sense of Time
  • 8.9 Geologic Time and Plate Tectonics
  • Key Terms
  • Key Concepts
  • Study Questions
  • Living on Earth: Radioactivity and Radon Gas
  • Science Refresher: Types of Radioactive Decay
  • Science Refresher: Linear versus Exponential Relationships
  • In Depth: The Quest for the Age of Earth

Chapter 9: Plates and Plate Boundaries
  • 9.1 Plates on Earth’s Surface
  • 9.2 Plates and Isostasy
  • 9.3 Plate Boundaries
  • 9.4 Divergent Boundaries: Creating Oceans
  • 9.5 Convergent Boundaries: Recycling Crust and Building Continents
  • 9.6 Transform Boundaries: Fracturing the Crust
  • 9.7 Hotspots: Tracking Plate Movements
  • 9.8 Plate Tectonics and Plate-Driving Mechanisms
  • Key Terms
  • Key Concepts
  • Study Questions
  • Living on Earth: The Bizarre World of the Mid-Ocean Ridges
  • Living on Earth: Tsunami
  • In Depth: Ophiolites—Clues to the Structure of Oceanic Crust

Chapter 10: Deformation and Mountain Building
  • 10.1 Deformation
  • 10.2 Orientation of Geologic Structures
  • 10.3 Fractures
  • 10.4 Folds
  • 10.5 Unconformities Revisited
  • 10.6 Plate Tectonics and Mountain Building
  • 10.7 Mountain Building in the Geologic Past
  • Key Terms
  • Key Concepts
  • Study Questions
  • In Depth: Partial Melting and the Making of Continental Crust–Nature’s Ultimate Recycling Program
  • Living on Earth: In the Shadow of the Himalayas

Chapter 11: Earthquakes and Earth’s Interior
  • 11.1 Heat and Density: Clues to Earth’s Interior
  • 11.2 Earthquakes and Elastic Rebound
  • 11.3 Seismic Waves
  • 11.4 Journey to the Center of the Earth
  • 11.5 Earth’s Structure and Composition
  • 11.6 Circulation in Earth’s Interior
  • 11.7 Plate Tectonics and the Fate of Subducted Slabs
  • Key Terms
  • Key Concepts
  • Study Questions
  • LIVING ON EARTH: Predicting Earthquakes – Some lessons from California
  • Science Refresher: Density, Volume, and Seismic Velocity
  • Science Refresher: Wave Refraction
  • In Depth: Earth’s Magnetism and Its Dynamic Core

PART III: Sculpting the Solid Earth

Chapter 12: Mass Wasting
  • 12.1 Mass Wasting: Downslope Movement
  • 12.2 Factors That Influence Mass Wasting
  • 12.3 Mass Wasting Mechanisms
  • 12.4 Minimizing Mass Wasting Hazards
  • 12.5 Mass Wasting and Plate Tectonics
  • Key Terms
  • Key Concepts
  • Study Questions
  • Science Refresher: Surface Tension, Sand Castles, and the Goldilocks Solution
  • In Depth: Mass Wasting on the Moon and Mars
  • Living on Earth: The Oso Landslide, Washington State

Chapter 13: Running Water
  • 13.1 Running Water and the Hydrologic Cycle
  • 13.2 Streamflow
  • 13.3 Stream Erosion
  • 13.4 Stream Transport
  • 13. 5 Stream Deposition
  • 13.6 Floods and Flood Prevention
  • 13.7 Running Water and Plate Tectonics
  • 13.8 Running Water on Other Worlds
  • Key Terms
  • Key Concepts
  • Study Questions
  • Living on Earth: The Death of the Aral Sea – An Environmental Disaster
  • In Depth: Dams and the Human Exploitation of Surface Water

Chapter 14: Groundwater
  • 14.1 Groundwater: A Vital Resource
  • 14.2 The Water Table
  • 14.3 Aquifers and Groundwater Flow
  • 14.4 The Dissolving Power of Groundwater
  • 14.5 The Exploitation of Groundwater
  • 14.6 Groundwater and Plate Tectonics
  • Key Terms
  • Key Concepts
  • Study Questions
  • Science Refresher: Water Pressure at Depth
  • Living on Earth: The Historical Importance of Aquifers
  • Living on Earth: Water in the Sahara Desert
  • In Depth: Exploring for Groundwater

Chapter 15: Glaciers and Glaciation
  • 15.1 Glaciers and Glacier Ice
  • 15.2 Glacial Erosion
  • 15.3 Glacial Deposition
  • 15.4 The Pleistocene Ice Age
  • 15.5 Plate Tectonics and Glaciation
  • 15.6 Ice on Other Worlds
  • Key Terms
  • Key Concepts
  • Study Questions
  • Science Refresher: Air Temperature in the Lower Atmosphere
  • Living on Earth: The Origin of the Great Lakes
  • In Depth: Lake Missoula and the Channeled Scablands

Chapter 16: Deserts and Winds
  • 16.1 Origin of Deserts
  • 16.2 Weathering and Erosion in Deserts
  • 16.3 Wind in Deserts
  • 16.4 Desertification: Natural or Human-Induced
  • 16.5 Deserts and Plate Tectonics
  • 16.6 Deserts on Mars
  • Key Terms
  • Key Concepts
  • Study Questions
  • Science Refresher: Ocean Currents and the Coriolis Effect
  • In Depth: Dust Devils
  • Living on Earth: The Dust Bowl

Chapter 17: Coastlines and Coastal Processes
  • 17.1 Coastal Processes
  • 17.2 Wind-Driven Waves
  • 17.3 Tides
  • 17.4 Coastal Erosion
  • 17.5 Coastal Deposition
  • 17.6 Coastlines
  • 17.7 Coastal Management
  • 17.8 Coastlines and Plate Tectonics
  • Key Terms
  • Key Concepts
  • Study Questions
  • Science Refresher: Wave Terminology
  • Living on Earth: Sea Level and Polar Ice
  • Living on Earth: Hurricanes and Storm Surges
  • In Depth: Sea Level and Plate Tectonics

PART IV: Earth Resources

Chapter 18: Mineral Deposits and Industrial Materials
  • 18.1 Consumption of Minerals and Industrial Materials
  • 18.2 Metals and Metallic Minerals
  • 18.3 Nonmetallic Minerals and Industrial Materials
  • 18.4 Formation of Mineral Deposits
  • 18.5 Plate Tectonics and Mineral Deposits
  • 18.6 Mineral Exploration
  • 18.7 Future Demands on Mineral Resources
  • Key Terms
  • Key Concepts
  • Study Questions
  • In Depth: Mechanisms of Mineral Concentration
  • Living on Earth: The Environmental Impact of Mining

Chapter 19: Energy Resources
  • 19.1 Energy Use
  • 19.2 Petroleum – Oil and Natural Gas
  • 19.3 Coal
  • 19.4 Nuclear Power
  • 19.5 Renewable Energy
  • 19.6 Plate Tectonics and Energy Resources
  • Key Terms
  • Key Concepts
  • Study Questions
  • In Depth: Correlation and the Search for Oil and Gas
  • Living on Earth: The Dilemma of Fracking
  • In Depth: Ice That Burns: Fuel of the Future?

PART V: Beyond the Earth

Chapter 20: Physical Geology and Climate Change
  • 20.1 Taking Earth’s Pulse
  • 20.2 The Greenhouse Effect: A Matter of Balance
  • 20.3 The Carbon Cycle
  • 20.4 Climate Change: A Geologic Perspective
  • 20.5 Earth-Sun Geometry
  • 20.6 Feedback Systems
  • 20.7 Plate tectonics and long-term climate change
  • 20.8 Putting it all Together: The Greenhouse Effect and Global Warmth
  • Key Terms
  • Key Concepts
  • Study Questions
  • Living on Earth: Camels in the Arctic!
  • Science Refresher: The Physics of Global Warming
  • In Depth: Melting of the Arctic Ice – An Omen of Global Warming?

Chapter 21: The Planets
  • 21.1 Earth and its Moon
  • 21.2 The Terrestrial Planets and their Moons
  • 21.3 Plate Tectonics: A Planetary Perspective
  • 21.4 The Jovian Planets, their Moons, and the Kuiper Belt
  • 21.5 Asteroids, Meteors, Meteorites, and Comets
  • 21.6 Exoplanets and Other Solar Systems
  • Key Terms
  • Key Concepts
  • Study Questions
  • Science Refresher: Center of Mass
  • In Depth: Martian Life on Earth?
  • Living on Earth: Visits from the Celestial Junkyard