Our growing understanding of the behavior of genes and genomes at a molecular level has enabled us to develop new tools for exploring how life operates at the level of genetics. Toolboxes throughout the book introduce many of the key experimental tools and techniques that are used to reveal more about the structure and function of genetic systems, and the way they evolve over time.

Prologue: Five Great Ideas

Chapter 1: Evolution, Genomes and Genetics

Toolbox: Model Organisms

Chapter 2: The Central Dogma of Molecular Biology

Toolbox: The Importance of the DNA Backbone: Separating DNA Molecules by Size

Toolbox: Making DNA Visible: DNA Stains and Labels

Toolbox: The Importance of the Base Pair: Hybridization

Toolbox: cDNA

Chapter 3: Genome Organization, Structure, and Variation

Toolbox: Identifying Natural Variation (Restriction Enzymes)

Toolbox: DNA Sequencing

Toolbox: Genome Assembly and Annotation

Chapter 4: Descent with Modification: DNA Replication and Mutation
Chapter 5: Basic Principles of Single Gene Inheritance

Toolbox: Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

Toolbox: The Application of the Enzymes Involved in Replication in Molecular Cloning

Toolbox: Building Phylogenetic Trees using DNA Sequence Data: Some Examples

Chapter 6: The Cellular Basis for Mendelian Genetics: Mitosis and Meiosis

Toolbox: Tetrads and Tetrad Analysis

Chapter 7: X-linked Genes and Sex Chromosomes
Chapter 8: The Inheritance of Multiple Genes

Toolbox: The Use of Epistasis to Construct Genetic Pathways

Chapter 9: The Location of Genes on Chromosomes: Linkage and Genetic Maps

Toolbox: Gametes, Phenotypes, and Test-Crosses in Mapping

Toolbox: TB 9-3: Crossover Suppression by Balancer Chromosomes

Chapter 10: Human Genetic Mapping, GWA Studies and Complex Traits
Chapter 11: Exchange and Evolution

Toolbox: Transformation with Plasmid Vectors

Toolbox: Applications of Site Specific Recombination

Toolbox: CRISPR Applications:  In Vivo DNA Editing and More

Chapter 12: Transcription: Reading and Expressing Genes

Toolbox: Reporter Genes for the Analysis of Gene Expression

Toolbox: RNA Interference

Chapter 13: Translation: From Nucleic Acids to Amino Acids

Toolbox: Evolution, Genes, and Genomes: Sequence Comparisons

Chapter 14: Networks of Gene Regulation

Toolbox: Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP)

Chapter 15: Genetic Analysis of Cellular Processes

Toolbox: No Lac of Reagents

Toolbox: Genome-wide Mutant Screens

Chapter 16: The Genetics of Populations
Chapter 17: Metagenomics: Genomes of Communities

Toolbox: Barriers to Culture