Section 1: Foundations

Chapter 1: Principled Public Relations

Defining Public Relations

Textbook Definitions

Crowdsourcing a Definition

Principled Public Relations Management

Tell the Truth

Prove It with Action

Listen to the Customer

Manage for Tomorrow

Conduct Public Relations as if the Whole Company Depends on It

Remain Calm, Patient and Good-Humored

Realize the Company’s True Character Is Expressed by Its People

Ethics

Reasons for Studying Ethics

Competing Duties

A Guide for Decision-Making

Case Study: “Tweeting Under False Circumstances”

Voices from the Field: Kathy Fitzpatrick

Codes of Ethics

Criticisms of Codes

Advantages of Codes

Professional Associations

In Case You Missed It (ICYMI)

Summary

Discussion Questions

Chapter 2: Public Relations Models Through the Ages

Public Relations Models in History

Press Agentry/Publicity

Case Study: The Reality of “The Situation”: Gaining Attention in the Marketplace of Ideas

Public Information

Two-Way Asymmetrical Communication

Case Study: Edward Bernays’s “Torches of Freedom”

Two-Way Symmetrical Communication

A Broader Social History of Public Relations

Religion

Education

Politics and Government

Major Motivations for Public Relations

Recruitment

Legitimacy

Agitation

Advocacy

Profit

Voices from the Field: Karen Miller Russell

Ethics: Disclosure of Information, Objectivity and Advocacy*

In Case You Missed It (ICYMI)

Summary

Discussion Questions

Chapter 3: Convergence and Integrated Communication

Convergence

Technological Convergence

Cultural Convergence

Economic Convergence

Professional Convergence

Divergence

Advertising

Marketing

Integration

Integrated Marketing Communication

Hybrid Functions

Case Study: Red Bull’s Content Marketing Strategy

How Public Relations Is Different at Its Core

Organization (Beyond Offerings)

Publics (Beyond Audiences)

Relationships (Beyond Sales)

Voices from the Field: Bill Imada

Ethics: Free Flow of Information*

In Case You Missed It (ICYMI)

Summary

Discussion Questions

Chapter 4: Relationship Management

Managing Relationships

Taking Care of Relationships

Key Outcomes of Relationships

News-Driven Relationships

Media Relations

Pitching

Commerce-Driven Relationships

B2C

B2B

Employee Relations

Investor Relations

Issue-Driven Relationships

Nonprofit Organizations

When Publics Are Organizations and Organizations Are Publics

Voices from the Field: Heather Harder

Ethics: Corporate Social Responsibility and Loyalty

Case Study: Coca-Cola and Corporate Social Responsibility

In Case You Missed It (ICYMI)

Summary

Discussion Questions

Section II: Strategy

Chapter 5: Research

Research in the RPIE Cycle

Formative Research

Summative Research

Situation

Organization

Publics

Case Study: Applying the Situational Theory of Publics: Net Neutrality

Quantitative Research

Surveys

Experiments

Content Analysis

Qualitative Research

Interviews

Focus Groups

Direct Observation

Secondary and Primary Research

Formal and Informal Research

Voices from the Field: Sarab Kochhar

Ethics: Utilitarianism

In Case You Missed It (ICYMI)

Summary

Discussion Questions

Chapter 6: Planning

Beyond awareness

A Hierarchy of Outcomes

Tuning In

Attending

Liking

Comprehending

Learning

Agreeing

Remembering

Acting

Proselytizing

Using McGuire’s Hierarchy of Effects for Planning

Strategic Planning

Case Study: Global Handwashing Day: Goals, Objectives and Outcomes

Timelines

Formative Research

Client/Management Meetings

Action and Communication Tactics

Production of Media and Communication Materials

Events

Evaluation

Budgets

Personnel

Administrative Costs and Supplies

Media and Communication Expenses

Voices from the Field: Brad Horn

Ethics: Beware of Zombies; Enhance the Profession*

Define the Specific Issue/Conflict

Identify Internal/External Factors

Identify Key Values

Identify the Parties Involved

Select Ethical Principles

Make a Decision and Justify It

In Case You Missed It (ICYMI)

Summary

Discussion Questions

Chapter 7: Implementation

Taking Action

Case Study: Pulled Pork: Chipotle’s Challenge to Act on Its Principles.

Choosing Channels

Controlled and Uncontrolled Media

Owned, Paid, Shared and Earned Media

Owned Media

Paid Media

Shared Media

Earned Media

Mixed Media

Case Study: The Magic Mix: Dell’s integration of Owned, Paid, Shared and Earned Media

Voices from the Field: Rosanna M. Fiske

Ethics: Loyalty and Diversity in Communication and Action

Case Study: Doing Well by Doing Good: Kimberly-Clark’s Efforts to Promote Diversity

In Case You Missed It (ICYMI)

Summary

Discussion Questions

Chapter 8: Evaluation

Old and New Methods

Message Testing

Focus Groups

Readability Tests

Experiments

Media Monitoring Services

Metrics, Analytics and Data

Tracking Visitor Behavior

Segmenting Referring Sources

Parsing Big Data

Barcelona Principles

Goal Setting and Measurement Are Fundamental

Measuring Communication Outcomes Is Recommended

The Effect on Organizational Performance Should Be Measured

Measurement and Evaluation Require Both Qualitative and Quantitative Methods

Advertising Value Equivalencies Are Not the Value of Communications

Social Media Should Be Measured Consistently with Other Media Channels

Measurement and Evaluation Should Be Transparent, Consistent and Valid

Case Study: The Barcelona Principles: Somebody Had to Do It

Measuring the Right Outcomes

Voices from the Field: Michelle Hinson

Ethics: Independence

In Case You Missed It (ICYMI)

Summary

Discussion Questions

Section III: Tactics

Chapter 9: Writing

Five Reasons to Write Well in Public Relations

Relationships

Influence and Persuasion

Goals and Objectives

Reputation Management

Impression Management

Storytelling

Case Study: Telling the NCAA’s Story—One Athlete at a Time

Features

Case Study: Godzilla Earns Citizenship; Shinjuku Earns Publicity

News

Writing for Intermediaries

Writing for News Media

Writing for Social Media

Writing for Search Engines

Business Writing

Voices from the Field: Cornelius Foote

Ethics: Expertise and Writing for Mutual Understanding

Case Study: Words Matter: A Strange Choice for an Agency Name

In Case You Missed It (ICYMI)

Summary

Discussion Questions

Chapter 10: Multimedia and Mobile

Multimedia

Text

Texting, Tweeting and Pitching

Infographics

Captions and Subtitles

Images

Case Study: The NBA Gets in the Snapchat Game Early

Creating Your Own Images

Hiring Photographers and Using Others’ Images

Audio

Radio Is Still Huge

Can Audio Go Viral?

Audio in the Multimedia Mix

Video

Producing Videos Yourself

Hiring Experts

Mobile

Social

Personal

Local

Snackable

Case Study: Snack Attack: An Iconic American Brand Faces Fallout for Going Digital

Uses and Gratifications of Media

Voices from the Field: Shane Santiago

Ethics: Privacy and Safeguarding Confidences*

In Case You Missed It (ICYMI)

Summary

Discussion Questions

Section IV: Contexts

Chapter 11: Legal

The First Amendment

Case Study: Amazon v. NYT: A Case in the Court of Public Opinion

Defamation

Intellectual Property

Copyright, Trademarks and Patents

Plagiarism

Fair Use

Digital Age Intellectual Property Issues

Public Information and the Freedom of Information Act

Protecting Publics

Safety and Accuracy

Financial Information

Privacy

Intrusion into Seclusion

Appropriation of Likeness or Identity

Public Disclosure of Private Facts

Portrayal in a False Light

Voices from the Field: Cayce Myers

Ethics: Safeguarding Confidences—Who Owns Your Social Networks?*

In Case You Missed It (ICYMI)

Summary

Discussion Questions

Chapter 12: Issues and Crises

Managing Conflict

Case Study: Is the Customer Always Right?…A Big Win for Little Italy

Managing Issues

Issues life Cycle

Case Study: The Issue Lifecycle of Volkswagen’s Dieselgate

Proactive Issues Management

1. Monitoring

2. Identification

3. Prioritization

4. Analysis

5. Strategic Decision Making

6. Implementation

7. Evaluation

Crisis Types

Victim Crises

Accident Crises

Preventable Crises

Crisis Response Strategies

Deny Strategies

Diminish Strategies

Rebuild Strategies

Reinforcing Strategies

Case Study: Bolstering to #Staystrong in the Fight Against Cancer

Social Media and Crises

Voices from the Field: Barry Finkelstein

Ethics: Conflicts of Interest*

In Case You Missed It (ICYMI)

Summary

Discussion Questions

Chapter 13: Global

Digital Divides—At Home and Abroad

Case Study: One Laptop per Child

Public Relations and Culture

Intercultural Public Relations

Case Study: Intercultural Communication and Potty Talk

Low-Context Versus High-Context Communication

Cultural Dimensions

Cultural Intelligence

International Public Relations

Public Diplomacy

Voices from the Field: Guy Golan

Ethics: Dialogic Ethics

In Case You Missed It (ICYMI)

Summary

Discussion Questions

Chapter 14: Careers

Employers

Agencies

Corporations

Nonprofits and NGOs

Government

Self-Employment and Small Business

Areas of Specialization

Health

Public Relations Careers: Public Relations Specialist

Sports and Entertainment

Public Relations Careers: Community Affairs Manager

Political and Public Affairs

Public Relations Careers: Associate, Communication & Public Affairs

Financial and Entrepreneurial

Public Relations Careers: Investor Relations Coordinator

Consumer

Public Relations Careers: Social Media Communications Specialist

International

Public Relations Careers: Communications and Campaign Manager

Education and Continued Learning

Career Tracks and Roles

Case Study: CEO Versus New Hire: Who Wins?

Voices from the Field: Krislyn Hashimoto

Ethics: Competition, Loyalty and Job Changes*

In Case You Missed It (ICYMI)

Summary

Discussion Questions

Appendices

Appendix A: Universal Accreditation Board Competencies

Appendix B: PRSA Code of Ethics

Appendix C: IPRA Code of Conduct

Appendix D: IPR Ethical Standards and Guidelines for Public Relations Research and Measurement

IPR Ethical Standards and Guidelines for Public Relations Research and Measurement

Notes

Credits

Author Index

Subject Index

*Each of six key values and six provisions for conduct in the PRSA Code of Ethics are covered